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Italy was later fragmented by the transitory supremacy of Feudal European conquerors from the East, Muslims from the south, and Germans and Normans from the north. This set stage for the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, in which Spain and Germany invaded Rome. By the time the Italian Wars ended in , three Italian states gained their independence but fell under the French rule until , and then Spain rule until As different nations contended for preeminence in Italy, the Papal State developed a zone of influence in Central Italy, challenging the rule of the Roman Empire. Cities in the north became defiant of Roman Rule and split to become independently governed cities.

By the end of the 18th century, northern and central Italy developed into remarkable powers, while the south experienced with power struggles between France, Spain, and Austria. In , the French annexed the Italian Peninsula, clearing out all old establishment and remnants of feudal rule.

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This annexation merged many of the Italian states and imposed a republican rule that only lasted for only a brief period until the French were forced out by Austria in However, the Napoleonic Wars that began in led to the unification of Italy into the Italian Republic, which was later named the Kingdom of Italy under the French Republic. The Pope invited the numerous diplomatic representatives that were present in the Vatican to bear witness to this assault and delivered protests to them that were to be conveyed to their authorising governments.

The walls of Rome were compromised after a four hour bombardment on the 20th September, Some nineteen papal soldiers and forty-nine Italian soldiers lost their lives in the associated battle. This "token" battle was itself brought to an end by the Papacy ordering its defenders to lay down their arms after making a show of resistance consistent with honour.

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The subsequent annexation of Rome to the Italian Kingdom was resoundingly endorsed by a plebiscite held two weeks later. Rome was now proclaimed as the capital of the Italian kingdom.

Talking History: The Italian Unification

There was in fact some debate about the wisdom of this move of the Italian capital away from Florence but it seemed that no other designation would be acceptable to the Romans themselves. Pope Pius IX was offered numerous far-reaching assurances as to the position of the Papacy in a "Law of Guarantees" considered by the Italian Parliament meeting in Florence in January and passed into law in May These guarantees would have recognised the Pope as being a Temporal Sovereign with the Vatican and Lateran palaces being deemed to be outside Italian territory and with a large grant equal to previous Papal budgets being made.

Pope Pius and Cardinal Secretary of State Antonelli chose to ignore such a system of guarantees and, when the first installment of monies were offered they were repudiated by Pope Pius :- "Never will I accept it from you by way of reimbursement and you will obtain no signature which might seem to imply an acquiescence in or a resignation to Spoilation. This address begins:- Senators and Deputies, gentlemen: The work to which we consecrated our life is accomplished.

After long trials, Italy is restored to herself and to Rome. Here, where our people, after centuries of separation, find themselves for the first time solemnly reunited in the person of their representatives; here where we recognise the fatherland of our dreams, everything speaks to us of greatness; but at the same time it all reminds us of our duties.

The joy that we experience must not let us forget them We have proclaimed the separation of Church and State.

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Having recognized the absolute independence of the spiritual authority, we are convinced that Rome, the capital of Italy, will continue to be the peaceful and respected seat of the Pontificate A Papal Encyclical that was sent to the higher Roman Catholic clergy in May had included the following sentiments Indeed, is not this very concession of guarantees in itself a clear instance of the imposition of laws upon us, - upon us on whom God has bestowed authority to make laws relating to the moral and religious order, - on us who have been designated the expounder of natural and divine law throughout the world?

Pope Pius IX had already depicted Rome as being "in the possession of brigands" after "the triumph of disorder and the victory of the most perfidious revolution" and had styled himself as being the "Prisoner of the Vatican. Decades of deep estrangement between Italy and the Papacy ensued. Pope Pius forbade participation by way of voting or any political involvement in the workings of the "godless" Sub-alpine government.


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Quite apart from these tensions between Papacy and Kingdom the new state had other hurdles to face. The census of showed that only 2. The disparity of prosperity between the relatively prosperous north and relatively impoverished south continued as a worrisome factor for many years thereafter. The Kingdom of Italy that emerged after was not the dynamic, powerful state that many nationalists had hoped for. The state was mired in debt. The liberal values of the regime suggested that they assume the debts of the states that Piedmont-Sardinia had absorbed in the process of unification.

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CAVOUR AND NAPOLEON III

Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Italian and German Unification 1. When the nation also had its own independent government, it became a nation-state. Napoleon agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. A combined French- Saridinian army won two quick victories against Austria. Major battles were fought at Magenta June 4, and Solferino June 24, A plebiscite held in ,determined the incorporationinto the kingdom of Sardinia ofthe states of Parma, Modenaand Tuscany.

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Rome was declared Capital of Italy, despite that it was not even in the new Kingdom. Three months later Cavour died. Before dying, Cavour purportedly said: "Italy is made. All is safe. Italian unity had at last been obtained more by diplomacy and astute timing than by military greatness.


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Italy entered the 20th century as a poor country. Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia dominated the Confederation.